The weave is basically how the threads (called warp and weft) are actually put together to make a fabric. It affects the way a fabric looks, feels and also where and when it should be used.
These are some main weaves of woven fabric: Plain, Twill, Sateen, Oxford, Herringbone, Dobby, Jacquard.
In plain weave fabric, the warp and weft threads cross at right angles to form a simple criss-cross pattern( see the picture below ). Each weft thread crosses the warp threads by going over one, then under the next, and so on. Poplin is one of the plain weaves .
Twill is a type of textile weave with a pattern of diagonal parallel ribs (in contrast with a satin and plain weave). This is done by passing the weft thread over one or more warp threads then under two or more warp threads and so on, with a “step,” or offset, between rows to create the characteristic diagonal pattern.Because of this structure, twill generally drapes well.
The sheen and softer feel of sateen is produced through the satin weave structure. Warp yarns are floated over weft yarns, for example four over and one under. (In a weft-faced satin or sateen, the weft yarns are floated over the warp yarns.) Standard plain weaves use a one-over, one-under structure. The long floats produce a surface that is smooth to the touch and reduces light scattering to increase shine. This weave structure is more susceptible to wear than other weaves.
The oxford cotton fabric is known as a basket weave where multiple weft threads are crossed over an equal number of warp threads. Usually, one single-color thread it crossed with white to give the oxford its signature checkerboard appearance. This type fabric can used in some relaxing environment, however, the shirt can be worn to the office if the cut and finish are professional.
Herringbone fabric are recognized for it’s resemblance to the v-shape bones of the herring fish. The fabric is textured and is essentially a twill that is mirrored when woven to create the sort of chevron pattern. Herringbone weaves tend to be slightly heavier in weight, and are more often found in seasonal shirting fabrics for cold weather
Dobby is a woven fabric produced on the dobby loom, characterized by small geometric patterns and extra texture in the cloth. Dobby fabric can use a variety of fine fibers to weave, so that it has a variety of patterns, colors, weights and hand feels.
Unlike dobby weave, jacquard weave is more complex. Jacquard looms requires the ability of holding more harnesses, dobby looms are best used for simple geometric patterns because of the limitations of the harnesses while Jacquard loom is for more complex patterns.